You must be a logged-in member of UHMS or a subscriber to the UHMS Journal in order to download the articles listed within these pages. If you are a member or subscriber, please log in using the Log In button above. If you would like to purchase a membership or a subscription, use the buttons below.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the United States (U.S.), with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting approximately 2.8 million TBI-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths in 2012 . For those under 45 years of age, TBI is the number one cause of disability and mortality worldwide . Within military populations TBI remains especially problematic. While the incidence of TBI in the U.S. military peaked in 2011, Department of Defense personnel continue to experience approximately 18,000 new cases each year, with 383,473 total cases between 2000 and the first quarter of 2018 . Eighty-two percent of these injuries were classified as mild TBI (mTBI) .